Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates. They do not undergo hydrolysis – they are not broken down by water into simpler carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are colorless crystalline substances, soluble in water and sweet in taste (fructose is the sweetest sugar). All of them are optically active substances.
Polysaccharides (glycans) are molecules of polymeric carbohydrates connected by a long chain of monosaccharide residues, combined together by a glycosidic bond, and when hydrolyzed, they break down to monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
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