Terrestrial ecosystems are human habitats. Over 99% of the Earth’s biomass is concentrated in terrestrial ecosystems. Most of the land biomass is in plants (99.2%). The main producers of terrestrial ecosystems are higher plants (trees, shrubs, grasses) that determine the characteristic features of these ecosystems. Plants are eaten by first-order consumers — herbivores. Terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by large herbivorous mammals – deer, antelopes, bison, livestock. Consumables of the first order serve as food for predators, consumers of the second order (wolves, bears, lynx, marten). Reducers are bacteria and fungi.
The area of aquatic ecosystems is much larger than terrestrial, but marine ecosystems prevail among them; the area of freshwater ecosystems is relatively small.
Features of aquatic ecosystems:
they have a relatively low taxonomic diversity and are mainly represented by algae, cyanobacteria and lower animals. Of the vertebrates, fish play a significant role, less commonly mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Among the producers may be green algae in freshwater ecosystems, brown and red algae in marine ecosystems. In the block of reducers – only bacteria.
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