What is the essence of paleontological methods for studying evolution? What are transitional forms and phylogenetic series?

Paleontology studies fossil organisms. The main paleontological methods for studying evolution include the study of transitional forms of organisms and the restoration of phylogenetic series. Transitional forms combine the features of both ancient and young systematic groups of organisms. Their study allows us to restore the historical development of organisms. Phylogenetic series are composed of fossil forms connected by evolutionary origin. They reflect the course of phylogenesis, i.e. historical development of one kind or another. Thus, the domestic. Paleontologist Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky recreated the phylogenetic series of the Horse family. According to him, the ancestors of modern horses lived in forests, had small body sizes, four-fingered limbs and teeth of the same type. In the course of evolution, the size of the body increased, the limbs gradually became one-fingered, the teeth changed. Horses came to life in the open spaces of the steppes, adapted to running and eating coarse plant foods.

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