What is the essence of the process of spore formation in bacteria?

In adverse environmental conditions, many prokaryotes form spores. Spore formation is expressed in the allocation of a large portion of the cytoplasm containing a ring-shaped chromosome and its surroundings with a thick multilayer capsule. Metabolism inside the spore almost ceases, the spore calcifies. When dry, spores can survive for hundreds and thousands of years. Once in favorable conditions, the spore “sprouts” and gives rise to a full-fledged active prokaryotic cell.

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