What is the function of the chromosome in the cell and in the body as a whole?

1) in storage of hereditary information. Chromosomes are carriers of genetic information;
2) the transmission of hereditary information. Hereditary information is transmitted by replication of a DNA molecule;
3) the implementation of hereditary information. Due to the reproduction of one type or another of i-RNA and, accordingly, one or another type of protein, control is exercised over all the vital processes of the cell and the whole organism.
Thus, chromosomes with the genes enclosed in them cause a continuous series of reproduction. The genetic functions of chromosomes until the early 40s of the XX century, most researchers associated with proteins. As the Russian biologist, geneticist Nikolai Konstantinovich Koltsov wrote, “it was difficult to admit that such a simple molecule as DNA has such complex functions.” However, in the future, it was DNA that was identified as the genetic material of all plants, animals, microorganisms, and most viruses. Chromosomes carry out complex coordination and regulation of processes in the cell due to the genetic information contained in them, which ensures the synthesis of the primary structure of protein enzymes. Each species has a certain number of chromosomes in its cells. They are carriers of genes that determine the hereditary properties of cells and organisms of the species. A gene is a part of a DNA molecule of a chromosome on which various RNA molecules (translators of genetic information) are synthesized. A gene is a functionally indivisible unit of genetic material and is presented in the form of a certain number (at least three) of linearly arranged nucleotides. It is the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA chains that determines the code of genetic information that can be transcribed (copied, as from a matrix) to mRNA molecules, and they, in turn, transmit (transmit) in accordance with the code the sequence for the inclusion of amino acids in the synthesized polymer protein molecule according to the principle ” one gene – one protein. ” The number of nucleotides in the chromosomes is huge. For example, genes that make up human chromosomes can contain up to two million pairs of nucleotides.

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