The main laws of inheritance were discovered by G. Mendel. Mendel achieved success in his research thanks to a completely new method he developed, called the hybridological analysis. The essence of the hybridological method of studying heredity lies in the fact that the genotype of an organism is judged by the signs (phenotype) of the descendants obtained with certain crosses.
The method has the main provisions:
• Not all the diverse set of traits of parents and hybrids is taken into account, but inheritance is analyzed according to separate alternative characters.
• An accurate quantitative account of the inheritance of each alternative trait in a series of successive generations is carried out: not only the first generation from crossing is traced, but also the nature of the offspring of each hybrid separately. The hybridological method has found wide application in science and practice.
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