What is the physiological meaning of the “goose bumps” that appear on the skin when cooled?

When the ambient temperature drops, the thinnest muscle fibers that make up the skin reflexively contract, which leads to increased energy production, and outwardly manifests itself in raising the hairs on the skin, which form an additional heat-insulating air layer. In humans, this physiological function is expressed to a much lesser extent than in animals.

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