What is the protective role of interferons and complement systems?

Interferons are proteins with antiviral and antitumor properties. They are produced by white blood cells and other types of cells. Interferons affect the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, causing changes in the cells that interfere with the reproduction and spread of viruses. As a rule, they do not save cells already infected with the virus, but protect neighboring cells from infection. In addition, interferons inhibit the reproduction of intracellular bacteria and can inhibit the development of malignant tumors.
The complement system includes about 20 special proteins that are constantly present in the blood. Some of them can attach to the membrane of bacterial and other foreign cells. Then, other proteins of the complement system are attached to these proteins in a specific order. As a result, a complex forms that perforates (i.e., perforates) the membrane, which often leads to the destruction of a foreign cell. In addition, cells “labeled” with the complement system are actively destroyed by phagocytes.

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