What is the purpose of experimental mutagenesis? What methods are used for this in breeding? Give relevant examples.

Experimental mutagenesis has opened up wide opportunities for obtaining source material for selection, increasing the frequency of occurrence of hereditary changes in the traits of organisms and the spectrum of their variability. The use of the initial material obtained during mutagenesis in combination with other methods of combinational selection has allowed the creation of many economically valuable cultural forms of organisms. Various chemical mutagens, such as ethyleneimine, nitrogen mustard, and others, are widely used in experimental mutagenesis. An example of chemical mutagenesis in plant breeding is the cultivation of the sunflower variety Pervenets at the All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds. The oil obtained from its fruit seeds contains up to 75% oleic acid, which makes it not inferior in quality to olive oil.
Apply radiation and chemical mutagenesis in the selection of microorganisms. So, in our country, genetic scientists led by S.I. Alikhanyan, as a result of processing molds – producers of antibiotics – with mutagens of physical and chemical nature, created new strains of microorganisms, the productivity of which was 1000 times higher than the initial non-mutant parent forms.

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