Living organisms can use only chemically bound energy. Each substance has a certain reserve of potential energy. Its main material carriers are chemical bonds, the rupture or transformation of which leads to the release of energy. The energy level of some bonds has a value of 8-10 kJ – these bonds are called normal. Other bonds contain significantly greater energy — 25–40 kJ — these are the so-called macroergic bonds. Almost all known compounds possessing such bonds contain phosphorus or sulfur atoms, in the place of which these bonds are localized in the molecule. One of the compounds that play a crucial role in the life of the cell is adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP).
Adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP) consists of the organic base of adenine (I), carbohydrate ribose (II) and three residues of phosphoric acid (III). The combination of adenine and ribose is called adenosine. Pyrophosphate groups have macroergic bonds indicated by ~. The decomposition of one ATP molecule with the participation of water is accompanied by the removal of one molecule of phosphoric acid and the release of free energy, which is 33–42 kJ / mol. All reactions involving ATP are regulated by enzyme systems.
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