Hormones bind to specific receptors located either on the cell membrane or inside the cell. As a result of the interaction of the receptor with the hormone in the cell, these or other genes are activated or repressed, and protein synthesis in this cell changes its character.
The regulation of the work of genes is coordinated at the level of the whole organism – mainly with the help of hormones. They are produced both in the cells of the glands of internal secretion, and in the cells of many other tissues, for example, nervous.
So, the adrenal hormone adrenaline activates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in muscle cells, which leads to an improvement in the energy supply of these cells. Another hormone, insulin secreted by the pancreas, on the contrary, promotes the formation of glycogen from glucose and its storage in liver cells. Accordingly, in each of the given examples, the activity of the hormone primarily consists in enhancing the synthesis of those enzymes that catalyze either the breakdown of glycogen or its formation.
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