Mutations are the material for natural selection, and therefore the driving force of evolution. The greatest role is played by gene mutations. Most of them are recessive and do not appear externally (phenotypically), as they are in a heterozygous state, under the guise of a normal phenotype. Such mutations do not fall under the influence of natural selection and can accumulate in organisms. As a result of crosses, such heterozygous mutations can become homozygous and appear externally. And such new traits fall under the influence of natural selection.
1. Polyplodia: polyploid plants are more resistant to environmental factors.
2. Chromosomal mutations: the formation of new species.
3. Gene mutations: morphological changes.
4. Combinational variability: a variety of genotypes and phenotypes
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