What is the significance of prokaryotes in biocenoses? Tell us about their environmental role.

Bacteria are actively involved in the movement of substances and energy along the food chains of biocenoses. Many of them are reducers: they decompose plant and animal remains and waste products of organisms, play a crucial role in soil formation. As a result of their activity, carbon dioxide, water, mineral salts are formed, which again enter the cycle of substances. A number of bacteria (in particular, nodule) are able to absorb atmospheric nitrogen and translate it into forms accessible to plants. In agriculture, depleted fields are sown with legumes so that the nodule bacteria living on the roots of these plants increase the level of nitrogen in the soil and make it more fertile. In the intestines of animals live bacteria that promote the digestion of fiber (cellulose). The role of pathogenic parasitic bacteria causing diseases in plants and animals is also extremely important. Finally, there is a special group of prokaryotes that have been capable of photosynthesis since ancient times – cyanobacteria. In aquatic biocenoses, they, along with algae, are the most important autotrophs (producers of oxygen and organic substances).

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