What is the specificity of enzymes? Why do enzymes actively function only in a certain range of temperature, pH and other factors?

Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions due to close interaction with molecules of substrates – the initial reacting substances. Not the entire enzyme molecule interacts with the substrate, but only a small portion of it — the active center. Most often, it is formed by several amino acid residues. The shape and chemical structure of the active center are such that only certain substrates can bind to it due to the correspondence of their spatial structures. Enzymes are proteins, therefore, they only work actively in a certain range of pH, temperature and other factors.

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