The unique properties of water are determined by the structure of its molecule. The water molecule consists of an O atom bound to two H atoms by polar covalent bonds. The characteristic arrangement of electrons in a water molecule gives it electrical asymmetry. A more electronegative oxygen atom attracts the electrons of hydrogen atoms more strongly, as a result, the common pairs of electrons are displaced in the water molecule in its direction. Therefore, although the water molecule as a whole is not charged, each of the two hydrogen atoms has a partially positive charge (denoted by 8+), and the oxygen atom carries a partially negative charge (8-). The water molecule is polarized and is a dipole (has two poles).
The partially negative charge of the oxygen atom of one water molecule is attracted by the partially positive hydrogen atoms of the other molecules. Thus, each water molecule tends to be connected by a hydrogen bond to four neighboring water molecules.
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