What is the underlying surface? What factors determine the ability of the underlying surface to reflect and absorb solar energy?

What is the underlying surface? What factors determine the ability of the underlying surface to reflect and absorb solar energy? How do the properties of the underlying surface affect the heating of atmospheric air?

The underlying rock is the components of the earth’s surface that carry out heat and moisture circulation with the atmosphere and affect its condition. Different types of underlying surfaces absorb solar radiation in different ways and give off heat to the atmosphere, evaporate moisture and affect wind power. This affects the weather, creates a mesoclimat. The properties of the underlying surface determine both the global circulation of the atmosphere and the features of local atmospheric circulation, causing the formation of breezes and mountain winds.

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