What is water balance? How is it regulated in the human body?

1. The body’s water balance is the balance between the amount of water entering the body and what is excreted. The amount of water consumed on average per day is up to 2.5 liters.
2. Water exchange is under the control of neuro-hormonal regulation. Water intake is controlled by the feeling of thirst. Thirst arises when the water content in the body decreases even by a few percent.
3. The hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic) is produced by the hypothalamus. With the formation of excess electrolytes (with an increase in osmotic pressure), more antidiuretic hormone is released, under the influence of which the kidneys secrete less urine. Conversely, if the osmotic pressure of the blood decreases, less antidiuretic hormone is released. In addition, the volume of blood flowing through the kidneys is simultaneously regulated. As this volume decreases, more of the hormone aldosterone is produced and released. Aldosterone inhibits the normal excretion of salts through the kidneys, under its influence, a feeling of thirst appears,
4. Excretion of water from the body is stimulated by the thyroid hormone – thyroxine. With an excess of this hormone, the excretion of water by the skin increases.

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