What measures did the US government take against monopolies, and for what purpose?

Under pressure from public opinion, the Sherman “antitrust” law was passed in 1890. The law prohibited associations that impeded the freedom of competition, i.e. monopolies were formally prohibited. However, the Sherman Act was powerless against trusts. It envisaged measures against the “collusion” of several firms in the market; was directed against lower-order monopolies – cartels and syndicates, and when these firms merged into one, i.e. a trust arose, the law did not see collusion here, and could not interfere in the internal affairs of firms.
After the Sherman Act, a new form of monopolies – holding companies – is gaining momentum. A holding is a company that holds a portfolio of shares of different firms, receives dividends and distributes them among shareholders. Naturally, as a shareholder enterprise, a holding company sends its directors to these firms and controls their activities. But in the face of the law, the holding is not a monopoly: the company only owns shares and, as a shareholder, certainly has the right to control the firms in which its capital is invested.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.