What political ideas did the Western European enlighteners offer?

The Western European Enlightenment was linked in many ways to the Renaissance. This was recognized and emphasized by the enlighteners themselves. They inherited from the Renaissance leaders humanistic ideals, worship of antiquity, historical optimism, and free thought. Both the former and the latter reevaluated the old values, questioned the old (feudal-ecclesiastical) dogmas, traditions, and authorities. Enlightenment was closely connected with the political life of the countries in which this movement developed (recall Voltaire, as the inspirer of the French revolution). After all, the ideology of the Enlightenment arose in the conditions of the crisis of the feudal system, the emergence of new layers of society and, of course, the contradictions between them, which could not cause a reaction among the best minds of humanity of that time. Enlightenment opposed the entire feudal system, with its system of class privileges, and became an active factor in helping to undermine the old order. Here are the main ideas of the enlighteners: J. Locke – universal equality, the right to life, freedom and property, separation of powers, Voltaire – an enlightened monarchy, freedom, equality, property, rejection of the institution of the church; S.Moiteskie – separation of powers, personal freedom and rejection of despotism; J.-ZhTusso – power belongs to the whole people, equality, universal suffrage, the rejection of private property; D. Didro – equality and individual rights, popular representation, rejection of despotism, A. Smith – the main source of wealth is labor, freedom of competition and trade, light taxes.
The Enlighteners deified nature and the “natural order of things”, and considered it necessary to liken it to all of social life. Enlighteners actively opposed the absolute monarchy. Many of them in their writings tried to describe the structure of an ideal society, to characterize various models of government. Jullathan Swift’s book, Gulliver’s Travel, is recognized as the best study.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.