Translation is the process of biosynthesis of protein from amino acids that occurs on ribosomes; one of the reactions of matrix synthesis.
The main stages of the broadcast:
– The binding of mRNA to the small subunit of the ribosome, after which the large subunit is attached.
– Penetration of methionine tRNA into the ribosome and complementary binding of its anticodon (UAC) to the start codon of mRNA (AUG).
– Penetration into the ribosome of the next tRNA carrying the activated amino acid, and complementary binding of its anticodon to the corresponding codon of mRNA.
– The appearance of a peptide bond between two amino acids, after which the first (methionine) tRNA is released from the amino acid and leaves the ribosome, and the mRNA is shifted by one triplet.
– The growth of the polypeptide chain (according to the mechanism described above), which occurs until one of the three stop codons (UAA, UAG or CAA) gets into the ribosome.
– Termination of protein synthesis and the breakdown of the ribosome into two separate subunits.
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