The organoids needed by the cell for protein synthesis are ribosomes. Their size is approximately 20 x 30 nm; there are several million in their cell. Ribosomes consist of two subunits – large and small. Each subunit is a complex of rRNA with proteins. Ribosomes form in the region of the nucleoli of the nucleus, and then through the nuclear pores exit into the cytoplasm. They synthesize proteins, namely, the assembly of protein molecules from amino acids delivered to the tRNA ribosome. Between the subunits of the ribosome there is a gap in which the mRNA molecule is located, and on the large subunit there is a groove along which the synthesized protein molecule slides. Thus, the process of translation of genetic information is carried out in the ribosomes, that is, its translation from the “language of nucleotides” to the “language of amino acids”.
Ribosomes can be in suspension in the cytoplasm, but more often they are located in groups on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell. It is believed that free ribosomes synthesize proteins necessary for the needs of the cell itself, and ribosomes attached to EPS produce proteins “for export”, that is, those proteins that are intended for use in the extracellular space or in other cells of the body.
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