What processes occur in the dark phase of photosynthesis? Where do they occur in chloroplasts?

If the light phase can occur only when the plant is illuminated, then the reactions of the dark phase proceed independently of the light. These reactions are carried out in the stroma of chloroplasts, where energy-rich substances: NADP • N and ATP come from thylakoids. The carbon source – CO2 – the plant receives from the air through the stomata. In reactions of the dark phase, CO2 is reduced to glucose, and this process proceeds with the expenditure of energy stored in ATP and NADP • N molecules. The conversion of carbon dioxide to glucose during the dark phase of photosynthesis is called the Calvin cycle, after its discoverer.
The general equation of photosynthesis can be represented as:
12 Н2О → 12 [Н2] + 6 О2 (light reaction)
6 СО2 + 12 [Н2] → С6Н12О6 + 6 Н2О (dark reaction)
6 СО2 + 12 Н2О → С6Н12О6 + 6 Н2О + 6 О2 (summary equation of photosynthesis)

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