What protective devices allow animals to avoid death by direct contact with predators?

1) Protective coloration: protective (fusion with the external environment), warning (bright, scares away predators who understand that such an animal should not be eaten), mimicry (imitation of less protected species to more protected ones), disguise (imitation of objects)
2) The use of various means of protection: mechanical (nails, teeth, claws, hooves), chemical (poisons, odors), electrical (electrical organs in fish)
3) Protective formations that exclude physical contact: shell, shell, spines, needles, wet integuments

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