Russia was forced to return Turkey to Kara in exchange for Sevastopol, Balaklava and other cities captured in the Crimea captured by the allies; inferior to the Moldavian princedom the mouth of the Danube and part of southern Bessarabia. A particularly difficult condition for Russia in the Paris Treaty of 1856 was the proclamation of “neutralization” of the Black Sea; Russia and Turkey, as the Black Sea powers, were forbidden to have a military fleet on the Black Sea, and on the Black Sea coast military fortresses and arsenals of the Black Sea Straits were declared closed to military courts of all countries. Thus, the Russian Empire was placed in an unequal position with the Ottoman Empire, which completely retained its naval forces in the Marmara and Mediterranean Seas.
The Paris Treaty established the freedom of navigation of merchant ships of all countries on the Danube, which opened up the wide distribution of Austrian, English and French goods on the Balkan Peninsula and caused serious damage to Russian exports. The treaty deprived Russia of the right to protect the interests of the Orthodox population in the Ottoman Empire. Moldova, Wallachia and Serbia remained under the sovereignty of the Turkish Sultan, and a collective protectorate of the great powers was recognized over them.
Three conventions were attached to the treaty: the first confirmed the London Convention of 1841 on the closure of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits for military vessels of all countries except Turkey; The 2nd set the number of light military vessels of Russia and Turkey on the Black Sea for guard service (Russia and Turkey could contain only 6 steam ships of 800 tons each and 4 ships of 200 tons each to carry out guard service); 3rd obliged Russia not to build military fortifications on the Åland Islands in the Baltic Sea.
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