What scientific discoveries and achievements preceded genetic engineering? At the junctions of what scientific branches did it arise?

Genetic engineering arose at the crossroads of molecular biology, microbiology and enzymology. Discoveries in molecular biology made it possible to elucidate the structure and features of the work of genes. Microbiology has helped to find vectors for genetic engineering. Enzymology provided researchers with enzymes called restriction endonucleases or restrictase, which are able to “recognize” certain nucleotide sequences in DNA and cut them so that single-stranded “tails” form at the ends of the molecules.

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