The water molecule has an angular structure: the nuclei that make up it form an isosceles triangle, at the base of which there are two hydrogens, and an oxygen atom at the top. The internuclear distances OH are close to 0.1 nm, the distance between the nuclei of hydrogen atoms is 0.15 nm. Of the six electrons that make up the outer electron layer of the oxygen atom in the water molecule, two electron pairs form O-H covalent bonds, and the remaining four electrons are two unshared electron pairs.
The water molecule is a small dipole containing positive and negative charges at the poles. Near hydrogen nuclei there is a lack of electron density, and on the opposite side of the molecule, near the oxygen nucleus, an excess of electron density is observed. It is this structure that determines the polarity of the water molecule.
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