What structures are included in the brain stem? What functions do they perform?
The brain stem includes the medulla oblongata, midbrain, diencephalon and bridge. The medulla oblongata performs a reflex and conductive function, it takes part in the regulation of food (salivary, chewing, swallowing) and protective (sneezing, coughing, vomiting) reflexes. He controls the work of the heart and breathing. The midbrain is involved in the regulation of muscle tone and coordination of movements; it is responsible for organizing reflexes, which are manifested in turning the head and eyes towards a suddenly acting stimulus. The diencephalon collects and transmits information from the sense organs (except for the olfactory organ) to the cerebral cortex, plays an important role in regulating the level of consciousness and concentration of attention, regulates metabolism and maintains a constant body temperature. The bridge performs reflex functions.