What success has modernization achieved in the leading European countries at the end of the 19th century?

What success has modernization achieved in the leading European countries at the end of the 19th century? Why did reforms replace revolutionary processes?

After the Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Commune, Western Europe for over 40 years did not know bloody wars and revolutions, and governments have already begun to give preference to reforms as a method of resolving social contradictions. Economic recovery and social insurance in industrialized countries improved people’s lives, advances in medicine helped fight disease, and the development of the education system gave rise to an understanding of the need for democracy and political equality. It seemed that nothing threatened the world.

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