What tissues in higher plants move aqueous solutions of mineral and organic substances? How is transport carried out?

Water and mineral substances are transported through vessels of wood, from the central cylinder of the root to the central cylinder of the stem, and from there to all other organs. Aqueous solutions of mineral substances are transported with the participation of the lower engine – the root and upper leaves. Through root pressure, water is pumped into the stem, and its evaporation by leaves creates a suction effect, as a result of which all new portions of water rise up through the vessels into the leaves. The water in the vessels is in the form of water columns in which its molecules arehepted together with hydrogen bonds. Due to the interaction of these forces, water with minerals rises in some trees and lianas to a height of over 100 m.
Organic solutions are transported through the sieve tubes of the bast. The bulk of substances transported through the sieve tubes is sucrose disaccharide. This substance is not involved in metabolic reactions occurring in the plant, therefore, it is not consumed during transport. In summer, transport through the sieve tubes of the bast goes mostly down – from the leaves to the roots and storage organs of the plant; in the spring – in the opposite direction, up to the buds and growing shoots.

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