What types of metabolism do you know? Give examples of organisms that differ in the use of sources of energy and oxygen necessary for metabolism. What is the role of these organisms in nature?
By the method of obtaining energy, nutrition and synthesis of organic substances, all organisms are divided into autotrophic and heterotrophic.
Autotrophic organisms synthesize organic matter from inorganic in the cells of their body. Autotrophs include all green plants and cyanobacteria. Chemosynthesizing bacteria that use the energy released during the oxidation of inorganic substances, such as sulfur, iron, nitrogen, also feed autotrophically.
Heterotrophic organisms use only prepared organic substances. The energy source for them is the energy stored in organic substances and released in the cell during their decay and oxidation. All animals, fungi and most bacteria belong to heterotrophs. Autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms are interconnected by the processes of metabolism and energy conversion. The most important group of organisms is photoautotrophs. They are able to synthesize primary organic substances from inorganic ones due to the energy of light as a result of photosynthesis. The second group is chemoautotrophic organisms that provide themselves with nutrients as a result of chemosynthesis.
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