What types of RNA are in the cell? Compare them according to their functions, structural features, and percentage of the total amount of RNA in the cell.

In the cell, there are several types of RNA that differ in the size of the molecules, structure and functions. Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) make up 80% of all cell RNAs. RRNA molecules combine with special proteins and form ribosomes – organelles on which protein synthesis from amino acids occurs. Transport RNAs (tRNAs) make up about 15% of all cellular RNAs. The tRNA molecules are relatively small (on average they consist of 80 nucleotides). All of them have a similar spatial configuration. Due to the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, the tRNA molecule acquires a characteristic spatial structure called the clover leaf. The function of tRNA is the transfer of amino acids to ribosomes and participation in the process of protein synthesis. Informational, or matrix, RNAs (mRNAs, mRNAs) are most heterogeneous in size and structure. MRNA molecules contain information about the structure of certain proteins. During the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes, they serve as matrices; therefore, protein biosynthesis also refers to matrix processes. The mRNA content is 3-5% of all cellular RNA.

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