What views on the nature of heat were in science before the approval of the kinetic theory of thermal phenomena?

Since the 17th century. there were two hypotheses about the nature of heat. According to the first, heat is a special type of matter – caloric. The content of caloric in a body determines its temperature; heat transfer processes are caused by the transition of caloric from one body to another. On the basis of concepts of caloric content, such concepts as “amount of heat”, “heat capacity of a body” and others were formed. The second hypothesis about the nature of heat – corpuscular – explained all thermal phenomena by the motion of particles that make up bodies.

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