A special group of viruses are bacteriophages, or simply phages that infect bacterial cells. The phage is fixed on the surface of the bacterium using special “legs” and introduces a hollow rod into its cytoplasm, through which, like through a syringe needle, it pushes its DNA or RNA into the cell. Thus, the phage genetic material enters the bacterial cell, and the capsid remains outside. In the cytoplasm, replication of the phage genetic material begins, synthesis of its proteins, capsid construction and assembly of new phages. Already 10 minutes after infection, new phages form in the bacteria, and after half an hour the bacterial cell is destroyed, and about 200 newly formed viruses, phages capable of infecting other bacterial cells, emerge from it. Some phages are used by humans to combat pathogenic bacteria, for example, bacteria that cause cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever.
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