According to the classical electromagnetic theory, any electromagnetic radiation, falling on a substance, causes forced oscillations of electrons, these oscillations are accompanied by the emission of electromagnetic waves. The frequency of the forced oscillations is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic wave incident on the substance; therefore, the scattered radiation must have the same frequency as the radiation incident on the substance. Compton found that in the scattering of X-rays with a wavelength of λ0 in the scattered flux, along with radiation with the same wavelength λ0, radiation with a longer wavelength is observed, and the change in the wavelength λα depends on the angle of radiation scattering. With an increase in the scattering angle, the intensity of radiation with a constant wavelength decreases, while the intensity of radiation with an increased wavelength increases. The results of Compton’s experiments did not find an explanation based on the wave theory.
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