France was distinguished by the relatively low pace of the industrial revolution that began around 1830. French textiles suffered from the competition of England, a big problem was the lack of coal – the main source of energy of that time. During XIX century France had to buy from a quarter to a half of the necessary coal abroad. This made French goods more expensive and weakened their market position. A very important feature of France was the preservation of small peasant farming. Such farms gave high-quality products, but expensive and in small quantities. High prices for agricultural raw materials were restrained by industry, and the high cost of foodstuffs hurt citizens.
France was the only European power in which there was no demographic coup, because, the peasants tried to have fewer children so as not to split the already small area between many heirs. Not receiving a sufficient supply of workers in the city, entrepreneurs often founded new factories in the countryside. Thus, the French worker did not lose touch with the village and community psychology, and accordingly there were no such extremes of inequality between the worker and the entrepreneur, as in England.
The French bourgeoisie was much less entrepreneurial than the English. In France, they preferred not to invest, but to save. Therefore, among the bourgeoisie there was a large proportion of bankers, financiers, and rentiers.
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