What were the features of the revolutions of 1848-1849 in German lands and in Italy?

Both countries were fragmented. The purpose of the revolutions of 1848 was the democratization of the political system and the solution of the social question. In Italian states, democratization meant the introduction of constitutions. The main social issue in agrarian Italy was the peasant, there was a national question, the main issue in the German lands was the creation of a single national state. The attempt to unite “from below” during the revolutions of 1848 failed.

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