Deism. The world, nature are presented as a gigantic mechanical system, which is set in motion by a divine first impulse. Considering matter as a passive substance, transferring the source of development outside the object, materialist philosophers were forced to come to the idea of a primary impulse. Deism is a worldview according to which God or spirit, having given the world an initial impulse for movement, no longer interferes with the regular course of events. B. Spinoza, for example, states: “God constitutes the producing cause (causa elliciens) not only of the existence of things, but also their essence.”
Atomism is the idea of the structure of matter, the presence of small material indivisible particles in the basis of nature. In the 17th century, thanks to the works of P. Gassendi (1592-1655) and other thinkers, ancient atomism was revived and received both philosophical and natural recognition. The concept “atom” has become a key concept in experimental mathematical physics and chemistry, which is acquiring scientific character. P. Holbach argued that: “all nature exists and is preserved only due to the movement of either invisible molecules and atoms, or visible particles of matter.” In this concept, matter is identified with matter; the invariable properties of matter are: length, divisibility, hardness, weight, inertial force.
Reductionism is a methodological principle according to which the higher properties of matter can be fully explained on the basis of the laws inherent in lower forms. Science and philosophy of modern times interprets motion as the movement of bodies in space (that is, mechanical motion) and tries to explain the essence of the universe and everything that is in it from the standpoint of the laws of mechanics. P. Holbach defines movement as “… a successive change in the relation of a body at different points in space or to other bodies.” From the point of view of the materialists of the New Age, movement occurs naturally, that is, teleologism is denied – the movement of an object in a predetermined goal.
Determinism is the principle of the interdependence of all that exists, the universality of cause-and-effect relationships. Determinism is also interpreted mechanically (this historical form of determinism is also called Laplace, classical, rigid), that is, only unambiguous, linear laws are recognized. P. Laplace (1749-1827) formulated the classic position that if there was such a great mind to know at the moment about all the forces of nature …, then there would be nothing left that would not be reliable for him, and the future, as well as the past would be before his eyes. In this concept, causality is identified with necessity and completely denies randomness. P. Holbach believed that the case … the word is meaningless … we attribute to the case all phenomena, the connection of which with their causes is not visible. Thus, we use the word chance to cover up our ignorance of the natural causes that make the phenomena we observe in ways we don’t know.