What were the titles of European rulers before the word “king” appeared? Where did these titles come from? In which countries of Europe did the word “king” replace them, and in which not?
The leaders of the Germans in the era of the Great Nations Migration were called konung (hence the English king); their vassals-governors were called duke; later (with the establishment of inter-tribal boundaries), local rulers received the titles of count or marquis (border guard). The Avars and Bulgarians called their leaders Khan. The word king comes from the name of Charlemagne. It took root as a title and as a name for Karl in the areas affected by the Roman-German Empire: in France, Spain, Poland, Czech Republic.
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