When do competitive relationships arise between individuals of the same and different species?

Competitive relations between individuals of the same and different species are carried out for food, place of residence, the ability to leave offspring. Competition within one species is called intraspecific. Intraspecific struggle is the most acute form of the struggle for existence, since all individuals need the same, and very limited resources – food, living space, shelters, breeding places. Intraspecific competition is an important regulator that controls population growth. Due to this competition, a certain relationship arises between mortality and fertility. This, in turn, leads to a certain relationship between the number of parental pairs and the number of offspring produced by them. Such relationships act as regulators of population fluctuations.
If competing individuals belong to different species, then this is interspecific competition. Any resource whose reserves in this environment are insufficient can serve as a competition object: a limited distribution area, food, a site for a nest, and nutrients for plants.
The result of competition may be the expansion of the distribution area of ​​one species by reducing the number or extinction of another. As an example, we can cite the active expansion from the end of the XIX century. area of ​​long-toed cancer, which gradually captured the entire Volga basin and reached Belarus and the Baltic states. Here he began to supplant a related species – broad-toed cancer.

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