Where in the cell are ribosomes found, with what cellular structures are their activities related? What functions do ribosomes perform?

Ribosomes are usually in a dissociated state, i.e., the large and small subunits are not connected to each other. During protein synthesis, two ribosome subunits bind to mRNA and form a single complex in which protein biosynthesis occurs. Some ribosomes are located on the granular EPS, and the protein synthesized by them enters the EPS and is transported further through the cell compartments. Other so-called free ribosomes are located in the cytoplasm and are involved in the synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins. Several ribosomes are able, during protein synthesis, to bind to mRNA and form long chains – polysomes. On the polysome, several molecules of the same protein are synthesized simultaneously.

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