Radio waves are used to study the structure of matter and the properties of the medium in which they propagate. The study of radio emission from space objects is the subject of radio astronomy. In radio meteorology, processes are studied by the characteristics of the received waves. Infrared rays are used to aim projectiles and missiles at a target, to detect a camouflaged enemy. These rays allow you to determine the difference in temperatures of individual areas of the surface of planets, the structural features of the molecules of matter (spectral analysis). Infrared photography is used in biology in the study of plant diseases, in medicine in the diagnosis of skin and vascular diseases, in forensic science in detecting fakes. When exposed to humans, it causes an increase in the temperature of the human body. Visible radiation can affect the course of chemical reactions in plants (photosynthesis) and in animals and humans. Some insects (fireflies) and some deep-sea fish emit visible radiation due to chemical reactions in the body. The absorption of carbon dioxide by plants as a result of the process of photosynthesis and the release of oxygen contributes to the maintenance of biological life on Earth. Also visible radiation is used when illuminating various objects.
Ultraviolet radiation is used in fluorescent lamps, in forensic science (forgeries are detected from photographs), in art history (with the help of ultraviolet rays, traces of restoration that are not visible to the eye can be found in paintings). Window glass practically does not transmit ultraviolet radiation; it is absorbed by iron oxide, which is part of the glass. For this reason, even on a hot sunny day, you cannot sunbathe in the room with the window closed. Due to its high penetrating power, X-ray radiation is used in X-ray structural analysis (study of the structure of the crystal lattice), in the study of the structure of molecules, detection of defects in samples, in medicine (X-ray images, fluorography, cancer treatment), in flaw detection (detection of defects in castings, rails) , in art history (the discovery of old painting hidden under a layer of late painting), in astronomy (when studying X-ray sources), forensics. Gamma radiation can be recorded using ionization and bubble chambers, as well as using special photographic emulsions. They are used in the study of nuclear processes, in flaw detection.