Which countries in the XIX century. were the sources of emigration, and which immigrants received the most? How did the migration factor influence their development?
Emigrants from European countries flocked to the United States and other countries of the American continent, where they were attracted by the availability of free land, a large demand for labor and the higher standard of living associated with this. In the middle of the XIXth century there was a massive resettlement from Ireland (about half of European emigrants), political emigration after the suppression of the 1848 revolutions and the reaction that began in Europe, and, finally, the discovery of gold in California.
Immigration to the USA – especially to the North of the USA, where the main labor force at the enterprises of mechanical engineering, metalworking, light industry were numerous immigrants from various countries.
Until the early 1880s, at least half of all European migrants came from Great Britain, mainly from Ireland and Scotland. A rather high percentage of emigrants was given by Germany (the ruin of the German peasants was frequent crop failures, as well as political factors – the brutal suppression of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848. repeated clashes between German states). It should be said about the emigration of their countries of Scandinavia, which was second only to relocation from Ireland,
In the last decades of the 19th century, the role of the countries of “new emigration” – the backward agrarian countries of Southern and Central Europe (Italy, Austria-Hungary, etc.) has increased.
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