Which countries of Asia and Africa were (in whole or in part) at different times under the rule of Muslims?

The lands of the future Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania were under the rule of the Caliphate in the 7th-9th centuries. Later Muslims ruled in Indonesia, Malaya, Bangladesh.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.