Which highlight the main directions of evolution?

Allocate: biological progress and regression.
Biological progress is the successful evolutionary development of a systematic group, associated with an increase in the number of species, subspecies and other taxa included in it, an expansion of its range, an increase in the number of individuals, etc. Along with this, the species adapt to specific living conditions, and they specialize. The result of macroevolutionary processes are significant changes in the external structure and physiology of organisms. Currently, flowering plants, insects, gastropods, and bone mammals are in a state of biological progress.
In nature, biological regression also occurs. It is characterized by traits that are opposite to biological progress: a narrowing of the range, a decrease in the number of species, populations, and number of individuals. As a result, it often leads to the extinction of species. For example, of the many branches of the oldest amphibians, only those remained that led to the formation of modern classes of amphibians and reptiles, while the once thriving dinosaurs became almost extinct. At present, almost all relict groups of organisms are in a state of regression – treelike ferns, bipedal fish, egg-laying mammals, etc.

Directions Characteristic Examples Evolutionary significance
Aromorphosis large, large-scale evolutionary changes that lead to the general rise of the organization, increase the intensity of life the appearance of live birth, warm-bloodedness, a closed circulatory system; in plants – the appearance of a flower, vascular system, the ability to maintain and regulate gas exchange in the leaves give an advantage in the struggle for existence, make possible the transition to a new environment
Idioadaptation minor evolutionary changes that do not increase the intensity of life protective coloring of animals, adaptation of some species of fish to life on the bottom, some mammals to flight, in plants – cross-pollination, dispersion of seeds increase the adaptability of organisms to the conditions of a particular habitat
Degeneration evolutionary changes that lead to a simplification of the organization, to the loss of a number of systems or organs parasites have specific adaptations – suckers, hooks, reproductive organs develop transition to a parasitic lifestyle
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