Who among the clergy and laity of the West supported the reform of Gregory VII, who was against it and why?

The reform of Pope Gregory VII was supported by the new monasteries of the strict Cluny charter, as well as the trading cities of the Mediterranean – they counted on the benefits of the Crusades. The emperors of Germany and cities in the depths of Europe opposed the reform – they did not want to be ruled by the Italian clergy.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.