Who developed the foundations of the modern classification of organisms?

Biological systematics is a discipline whose tasks include the development of principles for the classification of living organisms and the practical application of these principles to the construction of a system. Modern classifications of living organisms are built on a hierarchical basis. Different levels of the hierarchy (ranks) have their own names: kingdom, type, class, order, family, gender, and, in fact, species. Species already consist of individual individuals.
This principle of building the system was called the Linnaeus hierarchy, named after the Swedish naturalist Karl Linnaeus, whose works were the basis of the tradition of modern scientific systematics.
Comparatively new is the concept of supra-kingdom, or biological domain. It was proposed in 1990 by Karl Woese and introduced the division of the entire biomass of the Earth into three domains: 1) eukaryotes (a domain that combines all organisms whose cells contain a nucleus); 2) bacteria; 3) archaea.

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