Why did Germany continue to remain fragmented until the second half of the 19th century?

Why did Germany continue to remain fragmented until the second half of the 19th century? What hindered and what contributed to its unification?

After the defeat of the revolutions of 1848-1849, Italy and Germany remained politically fragmented countries. We succeeded in carrying out national unification. But the problem of unification, and for Italy also the problem of national liberation, has not lost its relevance. Historical experience has shown that only in their own state the people have opportunities for full development. Preservation, fragmentation prevented the development of the industrial revolution, excluded the worthy participation of Italy and Germany in international affairs. In the 50-60s of the XIX century. in Italy and Germany, a generation of politicians and leaders appeared, which was able to successfully solve the complex problems of the formation of national states, for Europe in the second half of the XIX century. the unification of Italy and Germany became the personification of states – nations, earned themselves the right to exist largely thanks to the power of weapons.

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