Why did India, Indochina and Indonesia become colonies of European powers in the 16th-18th centuries, while China and Japan escaped this fate?
In the 16th century in the East, only Turkey, Iran, India, China and Japan were strong centralized powers capable of successfully resisting the European colonialists. By the middle of the 18th century, India was also mired in strife and was gradually conquered by the French and British. China weakened in the 17th century, but was captured by the northern conquerors, the Manchus, before the Europeans intervened.
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