Why did Italy join the empire of Otgon 1, but France did not?

The inhabitants of France had their statehood even before Charlemagne, and the Italians did not manage to create their own state even after the collapse of Charlemagne’s state.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.