Piedmont at that time was the most economically developed state. The bourgeoisie and the bourgeois nobility of Piedmont played a significant role in the Italian national liberation movement of the 19th century, being the leading force in the bourgeois Piedmont revolution of 1821, actively participating in the Revolution of 1848-1849 in Italy. For the suppression of the revolution of 1848-1849. in Italy, which remained fragmented as before, a riot of reaction followed. In all states (except the Sardinian kingdom), absolutist orders were restored; the constitutions conquered by the people in 1848 in Tuscany, Naples and the Papal State were done away with. Brutal repressions fell on patriots, many thousands, people were subjected to police persecution. Intimidation and despotic arbitrariness became the main methods of government of absolute monarchies, the army and the police – their main support. Ferdinand II, nicknamed the “bomb king” for the cruel reprisals against the participants in the revolution of 1848-1849, was especially raging in Naples. in Sicily.
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